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Engine cooling is the process of using either air or liquid to remove unwanted heat from the engine system.  Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraftrailway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.

Internal combustion engines are often cooled by circulating a liquid called engine coolant around the engine block, where it is heated, then through a radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then returned to the engine. Engine coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil. It is common to employ a water pump to force the engine coolant to circulate, and also for an axial fan to force air through the radiator.

Internal combustion engine cooling

Radiator - Engine cooling
Radiator – Engine cooling

uses either air or a liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines, cooling using air from the atmosphere makes for a lightweight and relatively simple system. Watercraft can use water directly from the surrounding environment to cool their engines. For water-cooled engines on aircraft and surface vehicles, waste heat is transferred from a closed loop of water pumped through the engine to the surrounding atmosphere by a radiator.

Water has a higher heat capacity than air, and can thus move heat more quickly away from the engine, but a radiator and pumping system adds weight, complexity, and cost. Higher-power engines generate more waste heat but can move more weight, meaning they are generally water-cooled. Radial engines allow air to flow around each cylinder directly, giving them an advantage for air cooling over straight enginesflat engines, and V enginesRotary engines have a similar configuration, but the cylinders also continually rotate, creating an airflow even when the vehicle is stationary.

Aircraft design more strongly favors lower weight and air-cooled designs. Rotary engines were popular on aircraft until the end of World War I but had serious stability and efficiency problems. Radial engines were popular until the end of World War II until gas turbine engines largely replaced them. Modern propeller-driven aircraft with internal-combustion engines are still largely air-cooled. Modern cars generally favor power overweight, and typically have water-cooled engines. Modern motorcycles are lighter than cars, and both cooling fluids are common

Automobiles and motorcycles

Coolant being poured into the radiator of an automobile

In automobiles and motorcycles with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine, a radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head, through which a liquid (coolant) is pumped. This liquid may be water (in climates where water is unlikely to freeze) but is more commonly a mixture of water and antifreeze in proportions appropriate to the climate. Antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol (with a small amount of corrosion inhibitor).

A typical automotive cooling system comprises:

  • a series of channels cast into the engine block and cylinder head, surrounding the combustion chambers with circulating liquid to carry away heat;
  • a radiator, consisting of many small tubes equipped with a honeycomb of fins to convect heat rapidly, that receives and cools hot liquid from the engine;
  • a water pump, usually of the centrifugal type, to circulate the liquid through the system;
  • thermostat to control temperature by varying the amount of liquid going to the radiator;
  • a fan to draw fresh air through the radiator.

What is the Radiator?

Radiator - Engine cooling
Radiator – Engine cooling

The radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside, thereby cooling the fluid, which in turn cools the engine. Radiators are also often used to cool automatic transmission fluidsair conditioner refrigerant, intake air, and sometimes to cool motor oil or power steering fluid. Radiators are typically mounted in a position where they receive airflow from the forward movement of the vehicle, such as behind a front grill.

Where engines are mid- or rear-mounted, it is common to mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow, even though this requires long coolant pipes. Alternatively, the radiator may draw air from the flow over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill. For long vehicles, such as buses, side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling and top airflow most common for air conditioner cooling.

The Vehicle layout is also the process of understanding how motors, work and their functions, The vehicle is based upon the type of drive used.
They are a front engine rear wheel drive, Rear engine rear wheel drive, front engine front wheel drive and four-wheel drive learn more

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